RESEARCH AND DESIGN OF TIMBER BUILDINGS
Ali Awaludin*1,2, Yoshihisa Sasaki3, Takuro Hirai3, and Toshiro Hayashikawa2
*JSPS Post-Doctoral Research Fellow
1Laboratory of Structural Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering Dpt, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta
2Laboratory of Bridge and Structural Design Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo
3Laboratory of Timber Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo
Abstract: Timber buildings under great earthquake would undergo large (inelastic) deformation with their beam and column members are still elastic. This fact is due to the large flexing ability and ductile behavior of their mechanical connections. These important connection characteristics can be further improved when the connections are carefully detailed through adjusting their loading-grain orientation, fastener slenderness ratio and fastener spacing. Since the inelastic deformation is solely due to their connections, non-linear analysis of timber building is often referred to a localized-nonlinearity problem. This study demonstrates the non-linear time history analysis of 2D model of timber building with load-deformation relation of timber connection is obtained previously in full-scale tests.
Keywords: Inelastic deformation, timber building, timber connection
UNDERSTANDING RECENT FOREST AND LAND WILDFIRE IN INDONESIA
Erianto Indra Putra1,2, Hiroshi Hayasaka1, Hidenori Takahashi3 ,Bambang Hero Saharjo2, Aswin Usup4
1Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan
2Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
3Hokkaido Institute of Hydro-climate, Sapporo, Japan
4Faculty of Agriculture, Palangkaraya University, Indonesia
Abstract: Forest and land wildfire in Indonesia is not a new phenomenon and should be classified into one of human-made disasters. Fires in Indonesia mainly occur in a dry season and become active under long drought, even in non-El Nino years such in 2003 and 2005 when high positive value of SST Anomalies occurred. This may indicate that fire in Indonesia is not El Nino event anymore. Satellite detection of fire started from July 1997 and fire situation in western Indonesia could be informed well through hotspot information. More than 71% of fires occurred in Riau and South Sumatera (Sumatera), and Central Kalimantan and West Kalimantan (Kalimantan), four provinces having large peatland area – indicates that recent fires in Indonesia are mostly peat fires. 2006 may categorize as the worst fire year since 1997 when more than 147,000 hotspots detected in this year. Cause of fires is mainly human-caused, such as slash and burn, using fires in land opening and preparation, spot fire from small open fires, and others. Therefore, fire prevention should be established through training and education.
Keywords : Peat fire, hotspot, drought, el nino, SST anomalies, cause of fires
Analysis of cost and moment capacity index of
wall structure with and without reinforcement
Arief Setiawan Budi Nugroho, S.T., M.Eng.
Laboratory of Structural Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University
Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55284
Abstract : In masonry house, wall constitutes structural part which resist both vertical and horizontal load. The vertical loads come from the upper part of the building such as roof supporting truss and roof tiles, while the horizontal can be affected by wind and or earthquake. In many cases, therefore wall failures are mostly caused by the horizontal load; earthquake, rather than the vertical. Adding bars for reinforcement is usually done to increase the wall strength capacity both for horizontal and vertical loading. However, reinforcement increase the wall construction cost. This paper compares the cost and strength capacity index of wall structure with and without reinforcement. The strength is examined based on a linier moment analysis. The index is used to distinguish the benefits of reinforcing wall in term of moment resistant capacity rather than only cost. The main objective of this paper is to encourage people awareness for constructing house with proper strength particularly in Indonesian which has frequent earthquake occurrence. Finally, the benefits and drawbacks of each wall system are also discussed.
Keywords: Cost moment index, wall structure, reinforcement effectiveness
Earthquake Source Model Estimated from Recorded Tsunami and Tsunami Run-up
Aditya Riadi Gusman 1 and Yuichiro Tanioka 1
1Institute of Seismology and Volcanology, Hokkaido University
Abstract: We study two big earthquakes that generate tsunami in Indonesia which are the 1977 Great Sumba earthquake and the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake. Those tsunamis are recorded either by tide gauges near the earthquake source or at stations located a few hundred to several thousand kilometers, while the tsunami run-up and inundation measurements observe more detail impact of a tsunami on a coastal area. The tsunami numerical simulation calculates tsunami propagation and inundation from a given sea surface deformation due to an earthquake. We estimate earthquake fault model of the 1977 earthquake by comparing the calculated tsunami and the observed ones. For the 2007 earthquake we use tsunami inversion method to estimate the earthquake source with heterogeneous fault motion by using the tsunami waveform recorded by tide gauges.
Keywords: Earthquake source model, tsunami numerical simulation, tsunami inversion
ANNUAL GROWTH BAND AND CORAL Sr/Ca RECORDS: AN UPLIFTED CORAL BECAUSE OF DECEMBER 2004 AND MARCH 2005 EARTHQUAKE
Teddy Eka Putra1,2, Tsuyoshi Watanabe1
1Graduate School of Science , Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 Japan
2Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences LIPI), Jl Sangkuriang, Bandung 40135, Indonesia.
REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM (Cr) IN LABORATORY WASTEWATER USING CERAMIC MEMBRANE WITH SAWDUST AS ADDITIVE MATERIAL
Eko Siswoyo1*, Kasam1 and Enny Herawati1
1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning, Islamic University of Indonesia (UII), Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Abtract: This research is conducted to know the ability of ceramic membrane made from clay, quartz sand and sawdust as additive materials in removing Chromium in laboratory wastewater. Sawdust is solid waste of wood and furniture industrial that is available largely in Indonesia and still disposed as waste.
The variations of sawdust in this research are 7.5 % and 10 % of total weight with sampling time every hour. A pump of 1 meter pressure is used to flow water from chamber to ceramic membrane sized 7.5 cm of diameter and 20 cm of height.
The first type of ceramic membrane has efficiency 74.13 % in removing Cr in wastewater from 0.344 mg/l to 0.089 mg/l. Second ceramic membrane has efficiency 61.21 % from 0.544 mg/l become 0.211 mg/l. Both of them still have good performance after 5 hours running.
Keywords: Ceramic membrane, chromium, laboratory wastewater, sawdust
PHYTOREMEDIATION: INVESTIGATION ON PHENOL REMOVAL ON THE EFFECTS OF CULTIVATION PATTERN, PLANT WEIGHT AND CONTACTING TIME BY GROWING IN SITU AQUATIC PLANT Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.). Solms
Rudy Syahputra1,2, Siti Nurliza1, Syahda Maulana Sari1
1Phytoremediation Research Group, Department of Chemistry
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Islamic University of Indonesia、Jogjakarta 55584, Indonesia
E-mail : email@example.com
2Laboratory of Environmental Remediation Analysis, Division of Environmental Science Development, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT ： The removal of phenols by using an aquatic weed, eceng gondok (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart). Solms) was investigated in order to assess its ability to clean up industrial tanning wastewaters at Yogyakarta province. Results indicate that eceng gondok has capacity to absorb phenolic compound in relation with contacting time and cultivating pattern (P<0.05). Meanwhile, phenol sorption was not influenced by plant weight (P<0.05).
Keywords : Eceng gondok (eichhornia crassipes (mart). solms), contacting time, cultivation pattern, Plant weight
ECONOMICS MINERALS OF VOLCANIC AND MAGMATIC ORIGIN IN INDONESIA : STUDY CASE GOLD – BASEMETAL MINERALISATION OF ARINEM AREA, WESTERN JAVA
Euis Tintin Yuningsih1
1 Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University & Faculty of Geology, Padjadjaran University
DNA ANALYSIS OF THE ENDEMIC FISHES, OF LOCALLY CALLED FISH OF KING OF THE SEA
COELACANTH (Latimeria menadoensis) LIVING AROUND SULAWESI ISLAND OF INDONESIA
Mandagi Ixchel Feibie1, Hidemi Watanabe2
1Genome Laboratory,Graduate School Of Information Science
and Technology , Hokkaido University Japan
2Genome Laboratory,Graduate School Of Information Science
and Technology , Hokkaido University Japan
Abstract: Bunaken National Marine Park which becomes famous since the central government decided and established this area to be a National Marine Park in 1991. This park are location on Sulawesi Island, covers about 90.000 ha including 5 islands and 22 villages with inhabitants of more than 30.000 peoples living around this park and it is estimated that more than 20.000 tourist visit this park per year . This area becomes more famous since Mr. Mark Erdmann and his wife found one specimen of the “living fossil” of coelacanth in 1997 at Bersehati fish market and indicated this specimen as CCC 174 . In 1998 another coelacanth was incidentally caught by Mr. Yonathan near Manado Tua Island and based on DNA analysis indicated as CCC 175, which is different from the previous specimen captured at Comoros. This specimen is then called Latimeria menadoensis, or locally called “Fish of King of The Sea “. In the same year, the central government held a National Seminar on the Ocean and produced the Bunaken Declaration. After this declaration many more marine scientists do research in this area concerning biology, physics, chemist, geology as well as the marine bioprospecting. All the results suggest that the Bunaken National Marine Park have to be conserved and the marine resources have to be maintained for the future. On the other hand, during the last decade the park has suffered from continuous degradation due to a number of threats. The coastal of Manado Bay receives more pressure from human activities like coastal reclamations for buildings of department stores and hotels. Also the volume and type of anthropogenic and industrial waste delivered to the ocean increase. During our survey, we found many inorganic materials on the sea bottom of this park. After the last catch of coelacanth (indicated as CCC 254) accidentally caught by Mr. Delvy and Yunus Lahama and responding the success to film the living fossil made by the coelacanth survey team, the local and central governments have decided that the site where the coelacanth have been captured to be a Deep Sea Marine Protected Area. The governments plan to build a marine aquarium in this area . Again on last November 2008 the fishermen found the other coelacanth by used the shark bottom gill-net. The establishment of new species of Manado coelacanth has been confirmed that described that the Manado fish was a new species based on morphological differentiation and DNA sequence divergence in fragments of the cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes. In order to examine the genetic background of the newest caught of Latimeria menadoensis, in this proposed research, the complate DNA Analysis will be examined. The result would then be compared to the Latimeria chalumnae by phylogenetic relationship and divergence time estimation.
Keywords: Coelacanth, DNA analysis and king of the sea
THE CHECK ALLEVIATION IN THE DRYING OF EUCALYPTUS OBLIQUE L’ HERIT TIMBER
Trisna PRIADI1, Peter DOE2
1 Bogor Agricultural University, Department of Forest Products
2 University of Tasmania, School of Engineering
Abstract: Drying can cause a lot of defects on timber if it is not well managed. Therefore many wood industries in Indonesia lost their wood due to the waste in timber drying process. This research aimed to improve wood drying quality by the soaking in water and saturated urea solution before drying. This experiment used regrowth Eucalyptus obliqua L’Herit back-sawn boards which were prone to checking. Soaking in saturated urea solution was in three different periods (1, 14, and 56 days), while soaking in water was 56 days. Eight sample replications were made for each treatment. An experimental kiln chamber was used for drying test. Diffusion coefficient, moisture content, and drying defects were evaluated periodically during drying. The check free boards of eight and two weeks soaking samples in urea were not different from that in control samples. But, one-day urea soaking and 56 days water soaking reduced significantly checks.
Key Words: Wood, drying, check, urea, soaking
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT FROM MAHKOTA DEWA [Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.] ON HEPATOTOXICITY PARACETAMOL IN MICE
Phebe Hendra1, Yosephine Liesworo Purwandani2, Paulina Darini2, Luciana Kuswibawati2
2Faculty of Pharmacy, Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Abstract: The ethanol extract of mahkota dewa [Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.] on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in mice. The ethanol extract of P. macrocarpa at doses of 1.8, 2.5, 3.5, 4.9 g/kg per oral once in a day for 6 days was given to the paracetamol (250 mg/kg) induced liver injury in mice on the 7th day. Different groups of mice were given ethanol extract of P. macrocarpa at a dose of 2.5 g/kg and after ½, 1, 2, 4, 6 hours received paracetamol (250 mg/kg), respectively. P. macrocarpa exhibited significant reducing paracetamol-induced change in serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and liver's histopathological observation. These findings suggest that the ethanol extract of P. macrocarpa has a potent hepatoprotective action upon paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in mice. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the hepatoprotective mechanism of P. macrocarpa and to determine the exact phytoconstituent that is responsible for its hepatoprotective effect.
Keywords: Hepatoprotective, phaleria macrocarpa, paracetamol
BACTERIAL CELLULOSE BASED HYDROGEL FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATION: MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF BC UNDER VARIOUS CULTURE INTERFACE
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, State University of Padang, Indonesia,
2Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
Finding materials suitable for soft tissue replacement is an important aspect for biomedical application. One of the promising materials which could be suitable for this purpose is bacterial cellulose (BC) gel. We discovered BC having uni-axially oriented fibrils cultured on oxygen-permeable substrate with improved mechanical performance. We also succeed to create BC-based hydrogels with a reversible swelling ability after repeated compression and the other one with excellent tensile strength performance which is almost equivalent to the mechanical properties of articular cartilage and ligament. Thus, the BC based hydrogel with excellent mechanical performance could be a promising material for artificial soft tissues.
Keywords: Bacterial cellulose, Hydrogel, Oxygen-permeable substrate, Mechanical performance, Articular cartilage
SCREENING OF INDONESIAN WHITE ROT FUNGI AND POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF ITS EXTRACELLULAR ENZYME TO BIOBLEACH Acacia KRAFT PULP
Sitompul Afrida1, Toshihiro Watanabe1, Mitsuru Osaki1, Yutaka Tamai2
1Laboratory of Plant Nutrition
2Laboratory of Forest Resource Biology
Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan. Tel. +81- 11-706-3845; Fax +81-11-706-3845
Abstract: In recent years, there has been increasing interest in applying green biotechnology in bleaching processes to reduce pollution as well as improve the pulp quality. It has been proven that enzyme as pre-bleaching is clearly environmental friendly, economically attractive technology, and can decrease the amount of bleaching chemicals required. Several studies concerning the degradation of residual lignin in kraft pulp by white rot fungi have been published. However, the biobleaching of pulp from Acacia spp. has not been examined. This paper is the first report about white rot fungi that will biobleach Acacia sp. kraft pulp. For this purpose, we screened 600 fungal sources from Indonesia and subjected them to three-step screening method. The first screening, 258 isolates of the 600 sources showing positive reaction of guaiacol oxidation by laccase based on the observation of red colored zone around and beneath mycelial colony on Acacia mangium wood powder and agar medium containing guaiacol (WGA). The second screening revealed that 31 of the 258 strains could degrade extractive-free A. mangium wood powder. The third screening examined the ability of the strains to bleach A. mangium oxygen-delignified kraft pulp (A-OKP) under various pH conditions and showed that five strains could biobleach A-OKP at pH 5, 6 and 8. In contrast, the biobleaching abilities of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which served as standards, were much lower than those of the five new strains, particularly at pH 8. These five strains may be useful for biobleaching of A-OKP. For further study, Lentinus sp. LP-7 is one of the five selected strains was examined its extracellular enzymes ability to biobleach A-OKP. The result showed that the LP-7 decreased 6.7% in kappa number after 3 days treatment; this value was significantly higher than the values obtained from the standard strains of T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, both of them exhibited kappa number reduction in 3.3%.
Keywords: Acacia; biobleaching; screening, white rot fungi
REDUCTION OF CHLORAMPHENICOL RESIDUES IN SHRIMP
SUBJECTED TO AQUEOUS OZONE TREATMENT
Indun Dewi Puspita1,2, Senny Helmiaty1, Latif Sahubawa1
1. Lecturer, Departement of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia. Telp/fax: +62 274 551218
Abstract: Asian countries considered as large producers of shrimp including Indonesia. However, shrimp and other seafood are potentially served as source of chemical residues agent. Chloramphenicol (CAP) is one of the antibiotics commonly used for treatment of various infections due to its broad-spectrum and relatively low in price. Concerning to its proven toxicity to human, CAP is prohibited for use in food and the residues in food are unacceptable. The presence of CAP in trace level still could be detected in frozen shrimp product imported from Asia, including Indonesia which caused rejection of product by imported countries such as EU and Japan. This research is designed to study the ability of ozone in reducing chloramphenicol residues in shrimp. Various concentrations of aqueous ozone (1 and 2 ppm) combined with the variation of exposure time (2, 4, 6 minutes) were used as the treatment to observe the stability of chloramphenicol residue after treatments. Determination of chloramphenicol residue was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. Feeding shrimp with chloramphenicol mixed pellet in the doses of 2,5g/kg for 5 days resulted to the initial chloramphenicol residue of 0.681 ppm. The chloramphenicol content in shrimp after ozone treatment was found to range from 0,107 to 0,560 ppm while water treatment resulted to chloramphenicol content of 0,638 to 0.937 ppm. Residual chloramphenicol in shrimp after exposed with water for 6 minutes was 93.6%, whereas shrimp subjected to 1 ppm of ozone for 6 minutes and 2 ppm for 4 minutes resulted to the remaining chloramphenicol of 26.7% and 15.7%, respectively. Data analysis result showed that there is no influence from ozone treatment in chloramphenicol content. However, this study indicated that the higher the concentration of ozone resulted to the higher the reduction of chloramphenicol content. The result of this study hopefully could give a contribution to the improvement of frozen shrimp product quality from Indonesia.
Keywords : Chloramphenicol, ozone, shrimp
DELIVERY MACROMOLECULES USING A NOVEL IRQ LIGAND: WAYS TO IMPROVE TISSUE TARGETING AND TO OVERCOME ENDOSOMAL ENTRAPMENT
Diky Mudhakir1,2, Hidetaka Akita2, Erdal Tan2, Hideyoshi Harashima2
1School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha no. 10, Bandung 10342, Indonesia
2Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12 Nishi-6 Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan
INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN NEST SIZE AND NEST SITE FEATURES OF THE BORNEAN ORANGUTANS (Pongo pygmaeus): IMPLICATION FOR POPULATION STRUCTURE ESTIMATES IN INDONESIA
YAYA RAYADIN1,2* and TAKASHI SAITOH1,3
1Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University Japan.
2Forestry Faculty, Mulawarman University, East Kalimantan, Indonesia.
3 Field Science Center, Hokkaido University.
Abstract: Nest construction is a daily habit of independent orangutans for sleeping or resting. Data on their nests have been used in various ecological studies (e.g., density estimation, ranging behavior, evolution of material culture) because they are the most observable field signs. We investigated nest size and nest site features of Bornean orangutans in the wild during 10 months’ fieldwork at three sites in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Kutai National Park, Birawa and Meratus. To examine individual variation, we followed 31 individual orangutans and recorded the 92 nests they made for nest size (diameter) and nest site features (height of nest above ground, tree species used for the nest site, the diameter and height of the tree, whether the nest was new or reused, and nest location within the tree). Analyses taking age-sex classes of the focal individuals into consideration, showed significant age-sex differences in nest size and location, but not in nest height or nest tree features (diameter, height of tree and height of lowest branch). Mature orangutans (adult females, unflanged and flanged males) made larger nests than immatures (juveniles and adolescents). Flanged male orangutans with larger nests used stable locations for nesting sites and reused old nests more frequently than immatures. The overall proportion of nests in open (exposed) locations was higher than in closed (sheltered) locations. Flanged males and immatures frequently made open nests while adult females with an infant preferred closed locations. The good correspondence between nest size and age-sex classes indicates that nest size variation may reflect body size and therefore age-sex variation in the population.
Keywords: Pongo pygmaeus; age-sex variation; nest size; nest site features; nest reuse; population structure